Most of these artists were followers of Michelangelo or Mannerism originated as a reaction to the harmonious classicism and the idealized naturalism of High Renaissance art as practiced by Leonardo, Michelangelo, and Raphael in the first two decades of the 16th century. In the portrayal of the human nudethe standards of formal complexity had been set by Michelangelo, and the norm of idealized beauty by Raphael. The highest value was instead placed upon the apparently effortless solution of intricate artistic problems, such as the portrayal of the nude in complex and artificial poses. Mannerist artists evolved a style that is characterized by artificiality and artiness, by a thoroughly self-conscious cultivation of elegance and technical facility, and by a sophisticated indulgence in the bizarre.
Constantine, the first Christian emperor of the Roman Empire, moved his capital from Rome to the old Greek city of Byzantium. He renamed the city Constantinople after himself.
But the art of the Eastern Roman Empire that he founded is known as Byzantine. Byzantine art extends from the founding of Constantinople in A.
However, long after the fall of Constantinople, artists in the Greek islands, in the Balkans, and in Russia continued to create works in the Byzantine style. In the days of its glory, Constantinople was the most magnificent city in the world.
Above the gates and towers of the city walls rose the golden domes of the churches and the tall, shining columns set up by the emperors.
Some of the most famous statues of ancient Greece had been brought to the city. The huge palace of the emperor blazed with gold and silver, marble and mosaics. There the emperor, covered with jewels, was surrounded by priests in shining robes and by men-at-arms of every barbarian race. The Byzantine Empire was a religious state.
His magnificent jewels, robes, and crown were intended to give him a majestic and saintly appearance. The purpose of Byzantine art was to glorify the Christian religion and to express its mystery.
All of Byzantine art is filled with a kind of spiritual symbolism--things on earth are meant to stand for the order of heaven. Another characteristic of the art of this rich empire is a love of splendor. Byzantine art is a combination of Eastern and classical Western art.
The Byzantine Empire inherited the ideas and forms of art of the classical world of Greece and Rome. However, part of the empire was in Asia and Africa. The shores of Asia could be seen from Constantinople.
It was natural that the art of this empire should be greatly influenced by the art of the Near East. The art of Greece and Rome was naturalistic--artists wanted to show the world about them as it actually looked.
Their greatest interest was in the human body. To create an ideal beauty, they showed the body as it would look if it were perfect. The art of the ancient Near East was more an art of decoration. Artists filled large, flat areas with patterns that were repeated again and again. Instead of copying nature, they made natural forms into flat patterns.
They did not have the great interest in the human body that classical artists had, and they did not hesitate to change the shape of the body to fit into their designs.
Another characteristic of Eastern art was a use of glowing color. The Late Antique Period: The Beginning of the Byzantine Style For the first years of the Byzantine Empire, artists worked in the same style as the artists of ancient Greece and Rome.
Because the art was still based on that of the old classical world, these years are called the Late Antique period. During these years the new Byzantine style gradually grew out of the decaying art of the classical world.
In this period the Roman Empire lost its lands to the barbarian invaders from the north. Much of the art of this time of violence and disorder shows a loss of skill and craftsmanship.
Artists were no longer able to make the human body look like that of a living person.
They could no longer achieve the realism or ideal beauty that Greek and Roman artists had. Instead, for representing heads and bodies, they used certain rules that made human figures look unreal--stiff and wooden.
This unreality was made-to-order for expressing the spiritual ideals of Christianity. By the 6th century Byzantine artists had broken away from the classical styles.
They had created a new style to show the supernatural nature of Christ and the sacredness and grandeur of the emperor. He is remembered for his code of laws and his great building projects in Constantinople and Italy.The Byzantine Empire. The Roman-Byzantine Period. The Byzantine Empire was the predominantly Greek-speaking continuation of the Roman Empire during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages.
Byzantine art is the art of the Eastern Roman empire, extending from the founding of Constantinople in A.D. until , when the city was captured by the Turks.
Byzantine art was a combination of classical Western and Eastern art. The mature Byzantine style, evolved through the stylization and standardization of late classical forms of Early Christian art, was based on the dynamic of lines and flat areas of colour rather than form.
Individual features were suppressed in favour of a standard facial type, figures were flattened, and draperies were reduced to patterns of. For the first years of the Byzantine Empire, artists worked in the same style as the artists of ancient Greece and Rome. Because the art was still based on that of the old classical world, these years are called the Late Antique period.
Mosaics in San Vitale, Ravenna. Art During the Decline of Rome. The break-up of the Western Roman Empire was accompanied by wars, invasions, and immense dislocations of the social stability of Europe. For the first years of the Byzantine Empire, artists worked in the same style as the artists of ancient Greece and Rome.
Because the art was still based on that of the old classical world, these years are called the Late Antique period.