Chapter 15 Phases 5 and 6 Index Tudor O. Bompa, PhD, revolutionized Western training methods when he introduced his groundbreaking theory of periodization in Romania in
Feminization biology There are also sex-specific side effects of AAS. Development of breast tissue in males, a condition called gynecomastia which is usually caused by high levels of circulating estradiolmay arise because of increased conversion of testosterone to estradiol by the enzyme aromatase.
This side-effect is temporary; the size of the testicles usually returns to normal within a few weeks of discontinuing AAS use as normal production of sperm resumes.
Virilization Female-specific side effects include increases in body hairpermanent deepening of the voice, enlarged clitorisand temporary decreases in menstrual cycles. Alteration of fertility and ovarian cysts can also occur in females.
The kidney damage in the bodybuilders has similarities to that seen in morbidly obese patients, but appears to be even more severe. Neuropsychiatric[ edit ] Addiction experts in psychiatry, chemistry, pharmacology, forensic science, epidemiology, and the police and legal services engaged in delphic analysis regarding 20 popular recreational drugs.
AAS were ranked 19th in dependence, 9th in physical harm, and 15th in social harm. Anabolic—androgenic steroids abuse A review in CNS Drugs determined that "significant psychiatric symptoms including aggression and violence, maniaand less frequently psychosis and suicide have been associated with steroid abuse.
Long-term steroid abusers may develop symptoms of dependence and withdrawal on discontinuation of AAS". Recreational AAS use appears to be associated with a range of potentially prolonged psychiatric effects, including dependence syndromes, mood disordersand progression to other forms of substance abuse, but the prevalence and severity of these various effects remains poorly understood.
As a result, AAS users may get misdiagnosed by a psychiatrist not told about their habit. Compared with individuals that did not use steroids, young adult males that used AAS reported greater involvement in violent behaviors even after controlling for the effects of key demographic variables, previous violent behavior, and polydrug use.
The drug response was highly variable. The mechanism of these variable reactions could not be explained by demographic, psychological, laboratory, or physiological measures.She is poised, polished and statuesque with an athletic yet feminine build, as she stands tall atop solid strong legs with sweeping quads.
Wearing maybe a workout outfit or a bikini, she is the epitome of health, wellness, and fitness. Periodization authority Tudor Bompa and strength and conditioning expert Carlo Buzzichelli eliminate the guesswork and establish a clear path to reaching peak physical condition and gaining a competitive edge.
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