Morality and the Superego:
Social influence Social influence is an overarching term given to describe the persuasive effects people have on each other. It is seen as a fundamental value in social psychology and overlaps considerably with research on attitudes and persuasion.
The three main areas of social influence include: Social influence is also closely related to the study of group dynamics, as most principles of influence are strongest when they take place in social groups.
The first major area of social influence is conformity. Conformity is defined as the tendency to act or think like other members of a group. The identity of members within a group, i. Individual variation among group members plays a key role in the dynamic of how willing people will be to conform.
In the Asch conformity experimentspeople frequently followed the majority judgment, even when the majority was objectively wrong. The second major area of social influence research is compliance. Compliance refers to any change in behavior that is due to a request or suggestion from another person.
The foot-in-the-door technique is a compliance method in which the persuader requests a small favor and then follows up with requesting a larger favor, e. A related trick is the bait and switch. This is a prediction that, in being made, actually causes itself to become true.
For example, in the stock marketif it is widely believed that a crash is imminent, investors may lose confidence, sell most of their stock, and thus actually cause the crash. Similarly, people may expect hostility in others and actually induce this hostility by their own behavior.
Group dynamics A group can be defined as two or more individuals that are connected to each another by social relationships. They have a number of emergent qualities that distinguish them from aggregates: Implicit rules and expectations for group members to follow, e. Implicit rules and expectations for specific members within the group, e.
Patterns of liking within the group, and also differences in prestige or status, e. Temporary groups and aggregates share few or none of these features, and do not qualify as true social groups.
People waiting in line to get on a bus, for example, do not constitute a group. To a large extent, humans define themselves by the group memberships which form their social identity.
The shared social identity of individuals within a group influences intergroup behavior, the way in which groups behave towards and perceive each other. These perceptions and behaviors in turn define the social identity of individuals within the interacting groups.
The tendency to define oneself by membership in a group may lead to intergroup discrimination, which involves favorable perceptions and behaviors directed towards the in-group, but negative perceptions and behaviors directed towards the out-group.
Groups often moderate and improve decision making ,[ citation needed ] and are frequently relied upon for these benefits, such as in committees and juries. A number of group biases, however, can interfere with effective decision making.
For example, group polarization, formerly known as the "risky shift," occurs when people polarize their views in a more extreme direction after group discussion. More problematic is the phenomenon of groupthink.
This is a collective thinking defect that is characterized by a premature consensus or an incorrect assumption of consensus, caused by members of a group failing to promote views which are not consistent with the views of other members. Groupthink occurs in a variety of situations, including isolation of a group and the presence of a highly directive leader.
Janis offered the Bay of Pigs Invasion as a historical case of groupthink. Social facilitation, for example, is a tendency to work harder and faster in the presence of others.
Social loafing is common when the task is considered unimportant and individual contributions are not easy to see. An important concept in this area is deindividuationa reduced state of self-awareness that can be caused by feelings of anonymity.
Deindividuation is associated with uninhibited and sometimes dangerous behavior. It is common in crowds and mobs, but it can also be caused by a disguise, a uniform, alcohol, dark environments, or online anonymity . This refers to all forces that lead people to like each other, establish relationships, and in some cases fall in love.
Several general principles of attraction have been discovered by social psychologists, but many still continue to experiment and do research to find out more. One of the most important factors in interpersonal attraction is how similar two particular people are.
The more similar two people are in general attitudes, backgrounds, environments, worldviews, and other traits, the more probable an attraction is possible. Later on, similarity and other compatibility factors become more important, and the type of love people experience shifts from passionate to companionate.Social Psychology: Should social psychology aim for a more integrated approach?
Social psychology is the scientific study of how we affect each other by anything from what we say or do, to the simple act of our presence. From this descriptions it is clear how social psychology is often seen to overlap with sociology and indeed explains why many of .
JSTOR is part of ITHAKA, a not-for-profit organization helping the academic community use digital technologies to preserve the scholarly record and to advance research and teaching in sustainable ways. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80(6), – Our attitudes are made up of cognitive, affective, and behavioral components.
Consider an environmentalist’s attitude toward recycling, which is probably very positive. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory and neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system through which patients can suffer from sensory, .
THIS essay examines the idea of tolerance in our advanced industrial society. The conclusion reached is that the realization of the objective of tolerance would call for intolerance toward prevailing policies, attitudes, opinions, and the extension of tolerance to policies, attitudes, and opinions which are outlawed or suppressed.
EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY INTERACTIVE Readings in Educational Psychology. Developed by: W. Huitt Last updated: November