Math extended essay cryptography

How the Bitcoin protocol actually works by Michael Nielsen on December 6, Many thousands of articles have been written purporting to explain Bitcoin, the online, peer-to-peer currency. Most of those articles give a hand-wavy account of the underlying cryptographic protocol, omitting many details. Even those articles which delve deeper often gloss over crucial points. My aim in this post is to explain the major ideas behind the Bitcoin protocol in a clear, easily comprehensible way.

Math extended essay cryptography

One informal analysis suggests short first names are strongly correlated with higher salaries.

Math extended essay cryptography

They are bad in several ways, and modern glyphs are little better. For example, v and w, or m and n. People confuse them all the time, both in reading and in writing. Even though they share relatively few pixels, they are still identical under rotation, and we can see that.

We could confuse them if we were reading upside down, or at an angle, or just confuse them period. OK, so we now have a set of unique and dissimilar glyphs that are unambiguous about their orientation.

Well, we might want them to be easy to write as well as read. How do we define easy to write? We could have a complicated physiological model about what strokes can easily follow what movements and so on, but we will cop out and say: Rather than unwritable pixels in a grid, our primitives will be little geometric primitives.

The fewer the primitives and the closer to integers or common fractions the positioning of said primitives, the simpler and the better.

We throw all these rules in, add a random starting population or better yet a population modeled after the existing alphabet, and begin our genetic algorithm. What 26 glyphs will we get?

Dehaene describes some fascinating and convincing evidence for the first kind of innateness. In one of the most interesting chapters, he argues that the shapes we use to make written letters mirror the shapes that primates use to recognize objects. After all, I could use any arbitrary squiggle to encode the sound at the start of Tree instead of a T.

But actually the shapes of written symbols are strikingly similar across many languages. It turns out that T shapes are important to monkeys, too. When a monkey sees a T shape in the world, it is very likely to indicate the edge of an object - something the monkey can grab and maybe even eat.

A particular area of its brain pays special attention to those important shapes. Human brains use the same area to process letters.

Dehaene makes a compelling case that these brain areas have been recycled We did not invent most of our letter shapes, he writes. They lay dormant in our brains for millions of years, and were merely rediscovered when our species invented writing and the alphabet.

But who is to say that a butterfly could not dream of a man? You are not the butterfly to say so!

IBM - Icons of Progress

Better to ask what manner of beast could dream of a man dreaming a butterfly, and a butterfly dreaming a man. This is a reasonable objection. But it is rarely proffered by people really familiar with IQ, who also rarely respond to it. I believe they have an intuitive understanding that IQ is a percentile ranking, not an absolute measurement.

IQ is ordinal, not cardinal. It is plausible that the 20 points separating and represents far more cognitive power and ability than that separating andor and And if retarded kids are closer to Einstein that the smartest non-human animal, that indicates human intelligence is very narrowand that there is a vast spectrum of stupidity stretching below us all the way down to viruses which only learn through evolution.

Current IQ tests are designed for, tested against, and normed on fine distinctions among humans. It is very hard to test animal intelligence because of differing incentives and sensory systems, but if one deals with those problems, there ought to be some general intelligence of prediction and problem solving; the approach I favor is AIXI-style IQ tests.

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A gap like 20 points looks very impressive from our narrow compressed human perspective, but it reflects very little absolute difference; to a sheep, other sheep are each distinctive.

In Big O computer terms, we might say that geniuses are a constant factor faster than their dimmer brethren, but not asymptotically faster. The practical impact of a few factors out of thousands may be minimal, and explain the findings without denying the existence of such differences.

It has the advantage of all digital data: An upload could well be immortal. But an upload is also very fragile. It needs storage at every instance of its existence, and it needs power for every second of thought.

So reliable backups are literally life and death for uploads.Hyperlinked definitions and discussions of many terms in cryptography, mathematics, statistics, electronics, patents, logic, and argumentation used in cipher construction, analysis and production.

A Ciphers By Ritter page.

Other places on the web

What to Look For in an Online Certificate in Cyber Security. We’d be the first to admit that an online certificate in cyber security isn’t always necessary. The Silver Bear Cafe keeps its subscribers informed on issues that adversely affect the conservation of capital and strategies to preserve and increase ones financial security.

Math extended essay cryptography

Extended Essay - Mathematics Creating a Model to Separate or Group Number Sets by their Cardinalities Pope John Paul II C.S.S. September Candidate Number: “The conquest of the actual infinite by means of set theory can be regarded as an extension of our.

How the Bitcoin protocol actually works | DDI

Jan 26,  · IB (International Baccalaureate) is an emerging curriculum among the NRIs and other students across the globe and along with this is the emerging need for IB academic help among the students. IB is mostly focus on exploration and project work and understanding of the concepts.

Need Suggestions for a Math Extended Essay for IB submitted 2 years ago by c3n3k Hello, I am a Junior in the International Baccalaureate program, and need to begin considering topics for my Extended Essay.

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