The term 'the Augustan Age' comes from the self-conscious imitation of the original Augustan writers, Virgil and Horace, by many of the writers of the period. Dryden forms the link between Restoration and Augustan literature; although he wrote ribald comedies in the Restoration vein, his verse satires were highly admired by the generation of poets who followed him, and his writings on literature were very much in a neoclassical spirit. But more than any other it is the name of Alexander Pope which is associated with the epoch known as the Augustan Age, despite the fact that other writers such as Jonathan Swift and Daniel Defoe had a more lasting influence. This is partly a result of the politics of naming inherent in literary history:
The quantity and diversity of artistic works during the period do not fit easily into categories for interpretation, but some loose generalizations may be drawn. At the opening of the century, baroque forms were still popular, as they would be at the end. They were partially supplanted, however, by a general lightening in the rococo motifs of the early s.
This was followed, after the middle of the century, by the formalism and balance of neoclassicism, with its resurrection of Greek and Roman models. Although the end of the century saw a slight romantic turn, the era's characteristic accent on reason found its best expression in neoclassicism.
In painting, rococo emphasized the airy grace and refined pleasures of the salon and the boudoir, of delicate jewelry and porcelains, of wooded scenes, artful dances, and women, particularly women in the nude.
Rococo painters also specialized in portraiture, showing aristocratic subjects in their finery, idealized and beautified on canvas. The rococo painting of Antoine Watteau blended fantasy with acute observations of nature, conveying the ease and luxury of French court life.
Italian painters, such a Giovanni Tiepoloalso displayed rococo influences. English painting lacked the characteristic rococo frivolity, but the style affected works by Sir Joshua Reynolds and Thomas Gainsboroughwhose portraits tended to flatter their aristocratic subjects. Eighteenth-century neoclassicism in painting is difficult to separate from some works in the era of Louis XIV.
Both Charles Le Brun and Nicolas Poussin had earlier projected order and balance, often in grandiose scenes from antiquity or mythology. Jean Chardin carried some of this over into the s.
The neoclassic approach, however, often expressed powerful dissatisfaction and criticism of the existing order, sometimes in stark realism and sometimes in colossal allegory. The most typical representative of this approach was Jacques Louis Davidwhose most famous work, Death of Socrates illustrates his respect for Greco-Roman tradition.
His sketch of Marie Antoinette enroute to the guillotine clearly represents his revolutionary sympathies. The best examples of pure realism and social criticism are the London street scenes by the English painter William Hogarth and the Spanish court portraits of Francisco Goya The number of women painters increased during the eighteenth century, but they were so limited by traditions and so dependent upon public favor that they could hardly maintain consistent styles.
Very few were admitted to academies, where their work might be shown; in France, they were not permitted to work with nude models.
The result was their practical restriction to still-life and portraiture. Among rococo painters, the two best-known were Rachel Ruyscha court painter of flowers in Dusseldorf, and Rosalba Carrieraa follower of Watteau, who was admitted to the French Academy in If possible, they were overshadowed by Angelica Kaufmanna Swiss-born artist who painted in England and Italy.
All three were celebrated intheir time.Try Our Friends At: The Essay Store. Free English School Essays. We have lots of essays in our essay database, so please check back here frequently to see the newest additions.
A Review of A Modest Proposal by Jonathan Swift Essay. English E 14 September A Modest Proposal A Modest Proposal was written by Irish author Jonathan Swift and publish as a print in Jonathan Swift's essay, "A Modest Proposal," brilliantly employed satire to deliver serious political commentary on the abuses inflicted on poor Irish families by their well-to-do English landlords.
A Modest Proposal For preventing the Children of Poor People From being a Burthen to Their Parents or Country, and For making them Beneficial to the Publick, commonly referred to as A Modest Proposal, is a Juvenalian satirical essay written and published anonymously by Jonathan Swift in The essay suggests that the impoverished .
+ free ebooks online. Did you know that you can help us produce ebooks by proof-reading just one page a day? Go to: Distributed Proofreaders. Other writers agree: that wise guy of English prose, Jonathan Swift, knew a thing or two about good style.
Swift's style is, in its line, perfect; the manner is a complete expression of the matter, the terms appropriate, and the artifice concealed.