Conflict-management skills Group processing Group processing occurs when group members a reflect on which member actions were helpful and b make decision about which actions to continue or change. In order for student achievement to improve considerably, two characteristics must be present: Individuals must know exactly what their responsibilities are and that they are accountable to the group in order to reach their goal. All group members must be involved in order for the group to complete the task.
Volume 2, Issue C September How Teachers Change What will lead to change that most benefits student learning? They just get in a groove of doing what they have always done and what they are comfortable with.
I have been a teacher, a teacher-educator, a supervisor of student teaching, and a researcher, and have spent considerable time observing teachers in their classrooms.
The teachers I worked with in these places were not teaching exactly the same way they did the previous year; nor do I as a teacher-educator.
In fact, teachers change all the time. Where, then, did the view come from that teachers resist change? And how can this view co-exist with the notion that teachers change all the time?
This article explores the following thesis: The differences between these two views of teacher change may hinge on who is directing the change. Teachers often resist change mandated or suggested by others, but they do engage in change that they initiate: In this article, I lay out and compare the two views of teacher change.
I then examine two approaches to staff development, the training model and the reflective and collaborative model, and relate them to the differing views of teacher change.
Finally, I suggest that the best teacher change is carried out in a way that involves teachers in the process, and promotes coherence among teachers in an organization. This article draws on my personal experiences, research that I have conducted, and the broader research literature. The literature I review is primarily focused on the K system, but has much relevance for adult basic educators.
Change Hurts As I looked into the literature on teacher change, the sentiment I found expressed was that teachers do not change, that change hurts and that is why people do not change, and that teachers are recalcitrant e.
The literature suggests that teachers resist doing whatever is being proposed because they want to cling to their old ways. Change makes people feel uncomfortable. This view of change in teaching practice dominated the educational literature until the early s.
It focuses on the failure of teachers to adopt teaching activities, practices, and curricula that are suggested or mandated by those who are external to the setting in which the teaching is taking place: The view of the teacher as reluctant to change is strong and widespread, and is one I have heard expressed by many teachers as well.
It is promulgated by those who think they know what teachers should be doing in the classroom and are in a position to tell them what to do.
In that sense, it relates to issues of power e. As pointed out by Morimoto We are then without the freedom and the time to understand and to affirm the new learning as something desirable, and as something of our own choosing. Pressure to change, without an opportunity for exploration and choice, seldom results in experiences of joy and excitement in learning" p.
I felt that it was time to look at change from the standpoint of teachers themselves. And if they do, why? Voluntary Change In my work with teachers, I noticed that they undertake change voluntarily, following their sense of what their students need and what is working. They try out new ideas. These changes, while often minor adjustments, can be dramatic Richardson, In a long-term collaborative study of teacher change, my colleagues and I found that when a teacher tries new activities, she assesses them on the basis of whether they work: If she feels the activity does not work, it is quickly dropped or radically altered Richardson, The decision as to whether a new activity works is often unconscious and may be based on experiences and understandings that are not relevant to the particular setting in which instruction is taking place.
In other words, a teacher may try an activity that worked with another group of students and fail to notice that it is inappropriate for the new group.
Thus, while voluntary change is what teachers actually do in their classrooms, it does not necessarily lead to exemplary teaching.With the growing numbers of students with learning disabilities being included in the general education classroom and the pressures of state accountability assessments, classroom .
leadership issues related to effective special education and reviews emerging standards for principal performance to determine the knowledge and skills that effective school leaders need.
Recommendations for future research and leadership preparation are offered. NCSALL is NCSALL's efforts are dedicated to an important purpose: improving practice in educational programs that serve adults with limited literacy and English language skills, and those without a high school diploma.
The National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy (NCSALL) both informs and learns from practice. Its rigorous, high quality research increases knowledge and.
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