Transfer of Learning Teaching for transfer is one of the seldom-specified but most important goals in education. We want students to gain knowledge and skills that they can use both in school and outside of school, immediately and in the future. Transfer of learning deals with transferring one's knowledge and skills from one problem-solving situation to another.
Ethnic and Foreign-Language Media Ethnic and foreign-language media has a long and storied history in the United States: Benjamin Franklin printed the first German-language Bible in the United States, in addition to widely available German hymnals and textbooks Pavlenko, Lopez and Gonzalez-Barrera found that a majority of Latino adults say they get at least some of their news in Spanish, although that number was declining.
And while the panel found no comparable data on general news consumption among Asian Americans, Wong and colleagues reported that the consumption of news about politics shows a significantly higher proportion of Asian Americans than Latino Americans who get their political news exclusively in English.
Foreign-language media can play a role in immigrant integration, although it may simultaneously impede or slow down assimilation.
For instance, Zhou and Cai find that while Chinese language media may contribute to ethnic isolation, it also helps orient recent immigrants to their new society and promotes social mobility goals like entrepreneurship and educational achievement. Felix and colleagues suggested that Spanish-language media may play a role in encouraging immigrants to mobilize politically and eventually naturalize.
And Shah and Examining sociocultural theory noted that while mainstream media coverage of interethnic conflict and immigration tended to reinforce the dominant racial ideology and fears about immigration, ethnic newspapers provided their readers with an alternative perspective to this ideology and its associated fears about immigrants.
The extent to which ethnic and foreign-language media may promote social and economic integration, even as it helps immigrants maintain their native language and ties to their country of origin, is an issue that needs to be studied further.
Two-Way Exchange Absent from most discussions about language and immigrant integration is the two-way exchange between American English and the languages Page Share Cite Suggested Citation: The Integration of Immigrants into American Society.
The National Academies Press. Evidence of this two-way exchange occurs in education trends and in additions to American English Examining sociocultural theory.
Dual language and two-way immersion programs in languages such as Spanish and Chinese that include both native-born English speakers and first or second-generation Limited English Proficient LEP students are becoming increasingly popular Fortune and Tedick, ; Howard et al.
And enrollment in modern foreign-language courses in colleges and universities has grown since Furman et al.
Spanish course enrollments are by far the largest, but there has been significant growth in enrollment for Arabic, Chinese, and Korean, even as enrollment in classical languages has fallen Furman et al.
It is unclear whether native-born Americans are becoming proficient in these languages, but a majority of Americans feel that learning a second language is an important, if not necessarily essential, skill Jones, Other evidence of two-way exchange includes the incorporation of words or expressions into American English.
It is also worth noting here that, according to a recent analysis by the Pew Research Center, 2. Although it is unclear why so many non-Hispanics speak Spanish at home many may be married to Hispanicsthis number reconfirms that Spanish holds a special place in the American linguistic landscape.
The panel agrees with Rumbaut and Masseyp. Meanwhile, as discussed above, an increasing number of native-born Americans are learning the languages immigrants bring with them, while immigrant cultural forms and expressions continue to alter the American cultural landscape.
Although the outlook for linguistic integration is generally positive, the lack of English proficiency among many in the recently arrived first generation, particularly in low-skilled, poorly educated, and residentially segregated immigrant populations, coupled with barriers to English acquisition, can impede integration.
Funding for English-language classes has declined even as the population of limited English proficient residents has grown Wilson, Tellez and Waxman found significant state variation in English as a second language ESL certification of primary and secondary school teachers and how schools manage ESL education.
Batalova and Fix reported that the supply of adult ESL and basic skills learning opportunities has not kept up with demand; nearly two-thirds of immigrants with very limited English proficiency had never taken an ESL class. As discussed in Chapter 2ESL instruction is most readily available for refugees, and the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act was explicitly designed to address the needs of adult English language learners.
But there are barriers to receiving English-language education, particularly for low-income immigrants see Chapter 2. RELIGION Religion and religious institutions have long helped immigrants adjust to American society and have facilitated the integration process for immigrants and their descendants.
This was true a hundred years ago, when the vast majority of immigrants were from Europe, and is still true today, when immigrants mostly come from Latin America, Asia, and the Caribbean. The integration of the descendants of turn-of-theth-century eastern, southern, and central European immigrants and eventual acceptance of their predominant religions—Catholicism and Judaism—into the Page Share Cite Suggested Citation: Inaccording to one survey, the vast majority of immigrants—68 percent—were Christian, while 4 percent were Muslim, 4 percent Buddhist, 3 percent Hindu, 1 percent Jewish, and 2 percent a mix of other faiths Pew Research Center, see Figure Immigrants are more Catholic than the U.
This is not surprising given the high proportion of immigrants from predominantly Catholic Latin America and the significant numbers of Catholics from other countries such as the Philippines. Page Share Cite Suggested Citation: A large proportion came from Central America, where evangelical Protestants have made substantial inroads in recent years Pew Research Center, The post immigration has led to the growing prominence of new religions on the American landscape.
How religious are immigrants? In80 percent of immigrants were affiliated with a religious group or faith, compared to 77 percent of the U.
Unfortunately, we know little about the strength of religious beliefs among those who are affiliated. Data on religious service attendance is available from the New Immigrant Survey NIS of immigrants receiving permanent residence documents in However, other research found that some immigrant groups did show high rates of church attendance.
Massey and Higgins reported that 70 percent of Korean Protestant immigrants and around percent of Filipino and Vietnamese Catholics and Salvadoran Protestants attend religious services at least four times a month.
According to the NIS data, for every major religious group except Jewsimmigration was associated with a drop in the frequency of religious service attendance in the United States.Sociocultural evolution, sociocultural evolutionism or cultural evolution are theories of cultural and social evolution that describe how cultures and societies change over time.
Whereas sociocultural development traces processes that tend to increase the complexity of a society or culture, sociocultural evolution also considers process that can lead to decreases in complexity (degeneration.
Link to College of Arts and Letters Programs Anthropology. Undergraduate Courses/link to graduate courses Cultural Difference in a Globalized Society (ANT . Sociocultural theory is an emerging theory in psychology that looks at the important contributions that society makes to individual development.
This theory stresses the interaction between developing people and the culture in which they live. Attachment theory is a concept in developmental psychology that concerns the importance of "attachment" in regards to personal development. Specifically, it makes the claim that the ability for an individual to form an emotional and physical "attachment" to another person gives a sense of stability.
Vygotsky's sociocultural theory mainly dealt with the concept that the cognitive development of a child depends upon his response to the influences of the culture and society he is born in. Vegotsky's theory included observations of the framework of examining the relationship between learning and development.
Modern management theory has changed the way managers look at their jobs. Advancements and refinements in management theory and practice have enabled .