Multiculturalism involves not only claims of identity and culture as some critics of multiculturalism suggest. It is also a matter of economic interests and political power:
Multiculturalism involves not only claims of identity and culture as some critics of multiculturalism suggest. It is also a matter of economic interests and political power: Yet multicultural claims include a wide range of claims involving religion, language, ethnicity, nationality, and race.
Culture is a contested, open-ended concept, and all of these categories have been subsumed by or equated with the concept of culture. Disaggregating and distinguishing among different types of claims can clarify what is at stake Song Language and religion are at the heart of many claims for cultural accommodation by immigrants.
The key claim made by minority nations is for self-government rights. Race has a more limited role in multicultural discourse. Antiracism and multiculturalism are distinct but related ideas: African American art and literature but also for acknowledgment of the history of group subordination and its concomitant experience Gooding-Williams When the right-holder is the group, the right may protect group rules that restrict the freedom of individual members, as in the case of the Pueblo membership rule that excludes the children of women who marry outside the group.
Now that you have a sense of the kinds of claims that have been made in the name of multiculturalism, we can now turn to consider different normative justifications for these claims. Liberals tend to be ethical individualists; they insist that individuals should be free to choose and pursue their own conceptions of the good life.
They give primacy to individual rights and liberties over community life and collective goods. Some liberals are also individualists when it comes to social ontology what some call methodological individualism or atomism.
Methodological individualists believe that you can and should account for social actions and social goods in terms of the properties of the constituent individuals and individual goods.
The target of the communitarian critique of liberalism is not so much liberal ethics as liberal social ontology.
Communitarians reject the idea that the individual is prior to the community and that the value of social goods can be reduced to their contribution to individual well-being.
Because our identities are formed dialogically, we are dependent on the recognition of others. The absence of recognition or mis-recognition can cause serious injury: He discusses the example of the survival of French culture in Quebec.
The French language is not merely a collective resource that individuals might want to make use of and thereby seek to preserve, as suggested by a politics of equal respect. Instead, the French language is an irreducibly collective good that itself deserves to be preserved: Because of the indispensable role of cultures in the development human agency and identity, Taylor argues, we should adopt the presumption of the equal worth of all cultures Will Kymlicka has developed the most influential liberal theory of multiculturalism by marrying the liberal values of autonomy and equality with an argument about the value of cultural membership, Rather than beginning with intrinsically valuable collective goals and goods as Taylor does, Kymlicka views cultures as instrumentally valuable to individuals, for two main reasons.
First, cultural membership is an important condition of personal autonomy. In his later book, Multicultural CitizenshipKymlicka drops the Rawlsian scaffolding, relying instead on the work of Avishai Margalit and Joseph Raz on national self-determination One important condition of autonomy is having an adequate range of options from which to choose Raz Cultures serve as "contexts of choice," which provide meaningful options and scripts with which people can frame, revise, and pursue their goals Kymlicka Kymlicka moves from these premises about the instrumental value of cultural membership to the egalitarian claim that because members of minority groups are disadvantaged in terms of access to their own cultures in contrast to members of the majority culturethey are entitled to special protections.
According to luck egalitarians, individuals should be held responsible for inequalities resulting from their own choices, but not for inequalities deriving from unchosen circumstances Dworkin ; Rakowski The latter inequalities are the collective responsibility of citizens to address. Luck egalitarians argue that those born into poor families are entitled to collective support and assistance via a redistributive tax scheme.
Kymlicka adds cultural membership to this list of unchosen inequalities. If one is born into the dominant culture of society, one enjoys good brute luck, whereas those who belong to minority cultures suffer disadvantages in virtue of the bad brute luck of their minority status.
Insofar as inequality in access to cultural membership stems from luck as opposed to individual choices and one suffers disadvantages as a result of it, members of minority groups can reasonably demand that members of the majority culture must share in bearing the costs of accommodation.
Why not just enforce antidiscrimination laws, stopping short of any positive accommodations for minority groups?
Kymlicka and other liberal theorists of multiculturalism contend that antidiscrimination laws fall short of treating members of minority groups as equals; this is because states cannot be neutral with respect to culture.
In culturally diverse societies, we can easily find patterns of state support for some cultural groups over others. While states may prohibit racial discrimination and avoid official establishment of any religion, they cannot avoid establishing one language for public schooling and other state services language being a paradigmatic marker of culture Kymlicka; Carens77—78; Patten Linguistic advantage translates into economic and political advantage since members of the dominant cultural community have a leg up in schools, the workplace, and politics.
Linguistic advantage also takes a symbolic form.multicultural definition: 1. including people who have many different customs and beliefs: 2.
relating to a number of different cultures, esp. to the traditions of people of different religions and races: 3. relating to or including people from different cultures.
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An Analysis and a Definition of the Term 'Multicultural' words. 1 page. An Introduction and an Analysis of Multicultural Education in America. 2, words. 6 pages. An Analysis of Multicultural Education in America.
2, words. "Multiculturalism" is the co-existence of diverse cultures, where culture includes racial, religious, or cultural groups and is manifested in customary behaviours, cultural assumptions and values, patterns of thinking, and communicative styles.
Multicultural definition is - of, relating to, reflecting, or adapted to diverse cultures. How to use multicultural in a sentence. of, relating to, reflecting, or adapted to diverse cultures; relating to or including many different cultures See the full definition.
SINCE Cultural analysis.
The applied analysis of cultural phenomenon, often including advertising and media products, in order to provide context for a client's business or insight into a market.
Multicultural Analysis Multicultural literature offers the reader a brief look into a new or unknown culture.
The traditions, values, beliefs, and lifestyle are revealed through the story, and the reader realizes why certain actions or decisions are made.